Students attending college rely on a variety of social and financial resources to cover the personal and academic costs of higher education. The most common tool for students is financial aid, which may include loans, needs-based grants, and work–study. Federal financial aid is designed to increase accessibility for individuals to pursue a college degree and is generally determined by their family’s assets or socioeconomic status. Research has suggested positive and negative relationships between students’ socioeconomic status and their academic outcomes. As this relationship has yet to be explored in music therapy, the primary purpose of this study was to explore the current financial needs and economic diversity of American undergraduate music therapy students. A survey was sent in April of 2020 for dissemination to undergraduate music therapy majors. Students from across the United States (n = 346) completed the questionnaire. Key findings included (a) most music therapy students (61.7%) took out student loans during the 2019–2020 academic year and expect substantial levels of debt upon graduation (>$10,000); (b) about one-third (34.4%) of respondents received the Pell Grant, a needs-based grant, in the past year; (c) a considerable majority (77.5%) were employed during school; and (d) 97% of students received additional financial assistance from their families. This study also compared the needs between BIPOC (Black, indigenous, people of color) and white students. Implications of findings as they relate to music therapy education and further research regarding the financial need and socioeconomic status are also discussed.
Enrollment in music therapy degree programs grew from 2000 to 2017 (Iwamasa, 2019). During the same period, students also paid more in tuition (Johnson et al., 2013; Ma et al., 2020). According to the U.S. Department of Education, National Center for Education Statistics (NCES, 2021), the average undergraduate tuition, fees, and room and board increased 49.38% from academic years 2000–2001 to 2017–2018 ($18,692 to $27,923). Thus, it is no surprise that students have been acquiring more debt (Archuleta et al., 2013; Ma et al., 2020; Velez & Woo, 2017).
Students rely on several monetary sources, including financial aid, family assistance, and employment to meet the costs associated with attaining a college degree (Ma et al, 2020; Sallie Mae, 2019). In 2019, Sallie Mae, a private education loan servicer, reported that the largest share of college costs (43%) came from family income and savings. However, family incomes have not increased equitably (Ma et al., 2020), and thus many students must turn to other sources to cover the costs of higher education including grants, Federal Work–Study, federal loans, federal tax credits, and employment.
Covering Higher Education Costs
Colleges and universities often offer academic- or needs-based scholarships that offset the price of tuition. Students may also qualify for federal financial aid. Financial aid is distributed by the U.S. Department of Education and consists of student loans, parent loans, grants, and work–study positions (U.S. Department of Education, n.d.-c). Students apply for financial aid through the Federal Application for Federal Student Aid (FAFSA), and the amount of financial aid dispersed to a student depends on factors such as the cost of attendance, which consists of tuition and fees, room and board, transportation, books, supplies and other expenses, and the Expected Family Contribution (EFC) (U.S. Department of Education, n.d.-c). Families with higher incomes and assets have a higher EFC than families with lower incomes (U.S. Department of Education, n.d.-b). Financial aid is meant to cover the difference between the cost of attendance and EFC.
The largest single source of financial aid comes from the William D. Ford Federal Direct Loan Program, also called a Direct Loan (Smole, 2019). Direct Loans are low-interest government-backed loans designed to improve access to postsecondary education for students from low- and middle-income backgrounds (Smole, 2019). The Institute for College Access and Success reported that undergraduate borrowers from the graduating class of 2018 owed an average of $29,200 and that approximately two-thirds of college seniors graduated with student loan debt (Gonzalez et al., 2019).
The Pell Grant is another form of student aid. However, unlike the Direct Loan, the Pell Grant is not repaid by the recipient and is awarded to students with the greatest financial need (U.S. Department of Education, n.d.-a). Pell Grants are often used as a measure of economic diversity among undergraduate students, representing students from low- and middle-income families (Brown & Kurzweil, 2017; Carnevale & Van Der Werf, 2017; Chen & DesJardins, 2008; Heller, 2003). Students eligible for a Pell Grant generally come from households earning less than $50,000 per year (U.S. News, n.d.), and Pell Grants are seen as a leading indicator of how many undergraduates from low-income households are enrolled in a particular institution. The enrollment of low-income students, often underrepresented in higher education, is one factor used as a measure of economic diversity among undergraduate students (Cooper, 2019).
The Pell Grant, however, does not typically cover the entire cost of a degree. During the 2019–2020 disbursement period, students with an EFC of $5,576 or lower were eligible for a Pell Grant, and the maximum grant awarded was $6,195 (Manning, 2019). Additionally, the College Board estimated the maximum Pell Grant award covered 59% of the average published tuition and fees at public colleges, whereas, for private colleges, only 17% was covered by the grant (Baum et al., 2019). The number of Pell Grant recipients fell for seven straight years between 2012 and 2018; however, the share of Pell Grant recipients from families in the lowest income bracket ($30,000 or less) increased from 50% to 58% between 2007 and 2015 (Baum et al., 2019).
Financial Insecurity, Academic Performance/Retention, and Long-Term Outcomes
Even though financial aid programs have made college more accessible, many students still need to supplement the aid they receive (NCES, 2020; Perna & Odle, 2020; RTI International, 2019). Employment is one way students supplement aid and was found to be more common among underserved students, which included students from low-income families or single parents, first-generation students, and Black or Hispanic students (Perna & Odle, 2020). Working can not only result in positive outcomes, but it can also negatively impact students. Scholars found that working roughly 20 hours a week or less was associated with better academic outcomes, whereas working more than 20 hours a week was associated with decreased academic performance (Dundes & Marx, 2006; Pike et al., 2008). Furthermore, students of low socioeconomic status have been shown to spend more time working and less time on extracurricular activities while in college (Stuart et al., 2011). Employers have indicated that students’ engagement in extracurricular pursuits made them more competitive in the job market (Stuart et al., 2011), which may suggest students from lower socioeconomic circumstances experience disadvantages in the job market after college.
Students who experienced financial instability during college reported feeling anxiety and depression, leading to negative impacts on their academic performance (Andrews & Wilding, 2004; Jones et al., 2018). Joo et al. (2008) found a relationship between students with financial stress and the likelihood they would drop out of college or reduce their course load. Additionally, debt greater than $10,000 has been associated with increased college dropout rates (Dwyer et al., 2012). Scholars have also found that there is a higher likelihood of student debt for minority students (Chen & DesJardins, 2010; Houle, 2014), low-socioeconomic status (Houle, 2014; Millett, 2003), and women (Williams, 2021).
Students are often unprepared for the impact of student debt after graduation as they discover their loan payments will be higher and take longer to repay than expected (Hayhoe, 2002). Additionally, several studies used data from the Strategic National Arts Alumni Project (SNAAP) survey to highlight the effects of debt. Students with a degree in the arts, whose student loan debt was perceived to have an impact on their career after graduation, were more likely to feel less connected to their alma mater and less satisfied with their degree choice (Skaggs et al., 2017), but alumni with higher incomes were more satisfied with their college experience than those with lower incomes. A more recent study found that alumni with substantial amounts of student debt ($50,000 or more) were more likely to leave their careers in the arts than those with less debt (Frenette & Dowd, 2020). Furthermore, Miksza and Hime (2015) found that alumni with a music education degree had higher annual incomes and increased institutional satisfaction than alumni with a music performance degree.
Music Therapy Students’ Financial Needs
Some music therapy scholars (Grant & McCarty, 1990; Madsen & Kaiser, 1999; Walker, 2012) have noted financial concerns and stressors such as money and moving among music therapy pre-interns and interns, while others have discussed how educational opportunities like online learning can increase accessibility to music therapy coursework among students with financial needs or responsibilities (Vega & Keith, 2012). Student financial stability was also a factor considered during the master’s level entry discussions (American Music Therapy Association [AMTA], 2018; Wylie et al., 2017). However, little is known about the current financial needs of undergraduate music therapy students, their socioeconomic status, or how they are meeting the financial demands of music therapy education. Furthermore, defining the financial risks and assessing the level of financial accessibility of music therapy education would not only serve to advise educators, administrators, and policymakers in creating a more equitable field for students and young professionals but also inform prospective students and families in making academic and financial commitments. Therefore, the primary purpose of the present study was to survey undergraduate music therapy students to understand their financial needs, determine economic diversity among students through Pell Grant ratios, and elucidate how students are paying for their education. Additionally, the researchers sought to analyze the differences by race for socioeconomic representation, student loan debt amounts, Pell Grant recipients, and financial support.
An 11-question survey tool was designed using Qualtrics and deemed exempt from human subjects’ approval by the researchers’ Institutional Review Board. Professional referral sampling (i.e., selecting respondents through an intermediary) was used to recruit participants. To accomplish this, we emailed a cover letter and link to the survey to music therapy program directors (n = 88), Student Affairs Advisory Board advisors (n = 7), and regional presidents of AMTA’s student boards (n = 7) in April of 2020. AMTA provided email addresses for program directors, while the email addresses for the Student Affairs Advisory Board advisors and regional student presidents were obtained from publicly available sources. Program directors and student regional presidents distributed the survey link to current undergraduate students through email or social media. A follow-up email was sent to the directors and presidents nine days after the initial invitation, and the survey was closed after 18 days.
Survey participants confirmed their status as a full-time undergraduate music therapy student and a U.S. citizen or permanent resident prior to moving to the main survey. The survey included four demographic questions relating to (a) institution attended (public in-state, public out-of-state, or private), (b) student classification, (c) participants’ race, and (d) AMTA region where they attend school. Participants were then asked (a) whether they have acquired student loans, (b) the amount of loans they expect to accrue upon graduation, (c) whether they received a federal Pell Grant during the 2019–2020 academic year, and (d) whether they received income-based state grants. Additionally, students were asked about (a) their employment status, (b) how many hours they typically work each week, and (c) the types of financial assistance they receive from their family or friends. No personal identifying information was collected, and all data were kept confidential and secure.
The following sections include results related to demographics, loans, grants, and employment. For some of these sections, we present the proportion of responses from each region. However, due to the survey distribution method, contextual data (e.g., the total number of undergraduate music therapy students per region) are not available. Therefore, results should be interpreted with caution.
The total number of eligible students was unknown; however, the survey was attempted 384 times, and 346 students indicated they met eligibility criteria to participate (full-time undergraduate music therapy student and U.S. citizen or permanent resident) and were included in the data analysis. The largest proportion of participants attended private universities (46.2%) and all AMTA regions were represented, with the largest proportion of participants from the Southeastern (22.7%) and Midwestern (20.1%) regions. Additionally, respondents were primarily White/European American (79.5%). See Table I for complete demographic information.
The next part of the survey asked participants about the types of financial aid they received. Two-hundred and ten participants (60.7%) reported that they had taken out loans for the 2019–2020 academic year, while 136 (39.3%) had not taken out any loans for the school year. Participants then indicated the amount of student loans they expect to have upon graduation. Fifty-one students (25.6%) reported expecting between $20,000 and $29,999 in debt upon graduation, and 46 students (23.1%) reported expecting greater than $50,000 in debt upon graduation. Figure 1 indicates the number of respondents’ expected level of debt classified by AMTA region.
The next two questions of the survey asked about income-based grants. When asked if participants received a Pell Grant during the 2019–2020 academic year, 114 (34.4%) participants reported receiving a Pell Grant. Of the students who received a Pell Grant, 54 (36.7%) attended a private institution, 50 (35%) attended an in-state public institution, and 10 (24.4%) attended an out-of-state public institution. The number of Pell Grant recipients by AMTA region was, in order from the greatest to least, (a) Great Lakes (n = 24; 49%), (b) Western (n = 14; 46.7%), (c) Midwestern (n = 25; 37.3%), (d) Mid-Atlantic (n = 15; 30.6%), (e) Southwestern (n = 13; 28.9%), New England (n = 3; 25%), and Southeastern (n = 19; 24.7%).
For income-based state grants, 64 (19.3%) respondents indicated that they received at least one state grant during the 2019–2020 academic year. Of the students who received a state grant, 36 (24.3%) attended a private institution, 25 (17.6%) attended an in-state public institution, and 3 (7.3%) attended a public, out-of-state institution. The proportion of students who received a state grant by region were, from greatest to least, (a) Great Lakes (n = 12; 26.5%), (b) Mid-Atlantic (n = 13; 24%), (c) Midwestern (n = 13; 23.3%), (d) New England (n = 2; 19.7%), (e) Southeastern (n = 9; 17.8%), (f) Southwestern (n = 8; 16.7%), and (g) Western (n = 7; 11.7%).
Employment While Degree-Seeking and Other Financial Support
Participants indicated their level of employment and other financial support. When asked about employment status during the 2019–2020 academic year, 257 (74.2%) of respondents reported that they were employed while enrolled in school, with most of those working employed part-time. The most frequent ranges of hours worked were (a) 98 students (38.1%) worked between 11 and 20 hours per week, (b) 84 students (32.7%) worked between 1 and 10 hours per week, and (c) 59 students (23%) worked between 21 and 30 hours per week. The proportion of participants employed during the school year by institution type were, from greatest to least, (a) private institutions (n = 123; 82.6%), (b) out-of-state public students (n = 31; 75.6%), and (c) in-state public students (n = 104; 72.7%). The proportion of students employed by region, from greatest to least, were (a) Great Lakes (n = 45; 88.2%), (b) Western (n = 26; 86.7%), (c) Midwestern (n = 55; 82.1%), (d) Mid-Atlantic (n = 37; 75.5%), (e) Southwestern (n = 33; 73.3%), (f) Southeastern (n = 54; 70.1%), and (g) New England (n = 6; 50%).
Finally, students identified the types of assistance that they received from other sources such as family, friend(s), or a significant other. Respondents were asked to select all expenses that applied from the following: tuition, food, bills (e.g., phone, insurance, utilities), books, travel (e.g., gas, provide a car), housing/rent, none, and other (fill in the blank). The most frequent expenses participants received support for were (a) bills (n = 208; 62.5%), (b) tuition (n = 196; 58.9%), (c) housing/rent (n = 187; 56.2%), and (d) food (n = 179; 53.8%). Almost 3% of students indicated not receiving any financial support (n = 32). Other expenses written in by respondents included: music-related fees (e.g., accompaniment, coaching, and competitions), clothing, and loans.
The purpose of the present study was to survey undergraduate music therapy students to understand how they pay for their music therapy degree and to explore the economic diversity among students. Results indicated that most of the survey respondents will graduate with a substantial amount of student loan debt (>$10,000); more than three-quarters of the sample were employed while in school, and almost all the respondents (97%) utilized a variety of financial assistance from family and friends to support paying for college. About one-third of respondents received a Pell Grant, indicating families from low- and middle-income households.
Diversity, equity, and inclusion are salient societal issues, and lack of diversity in the music therapy workforce has long been identified as an issue in the field. In fact, the American Music Therapy Association Commission on the Education and Clinical Training of 21st Century Music Therapists (AMTA, n.d.) has identified the need to transform music therapy education and clinical training by increasing diversity through changes in educational policies, practices, and curriculum, among other aspects. The results of this study suggest a portion of current music therapy students represent low- and middle-socioeconomic statuses, just one aspect of diversity that needs to be considered in transforming music therapy education and clinical training. However, scholars have found that students from lower socioeconomic backgrounds are less likely to participate in music than their advantaged peers as costs for instruments, lessons, and other aspects of music participation may be a barrier to participation (Elpus & Abril, 2011). More work is needed, including examining and removing barriers at the K-12 level to attract and support students from lower socioeconomic backgrounds to music programs (Elpus & Abril, 2011). Moreover, reforming policies and practices at the post-secondary level are essential to increase diversity in the student population (Branscome, 2013), thus expanding access to the music therapy degree for more students from socioeconomically diverse backgrounds.
According to the NCES (2021), approximately 43% of full-time, degree-seeking students attending undergraduate programs for the first time received loan aid. Results from the current study showed that almost 61% of music therapy survey participants reported receiving loans, which is nearly 20% higher than the national average. These findings are consistent with a prior study that found universities with AMTA-approved undergraduate music therapy programs had higher percentages of students who incurred debt than national averages (Iwamasa & Thorn, 2022). Additionally, the percentage of students receiving loans is like results from previous research conducted by Miksza and Hime (2015), who found that approximately 56% of undergraduate music education and performance majors acquired student loan debt. Thus, it appears that music majors, in general, may be taking on more loan debt than the average undergraduate student.
Of the participants who reported taking out loans, the majority (95%) expected to have a substantial level of debt upon graduation (greater than $10,000). Forty-six participants, or 23.1% of those who reported taking out loans, expected to have greater than $50,000 in debt. Findings from a SNAAP report released in 2013 indicated that debt can act as a barrier for an arts career, particularly for minoritized students (Indiana University, 2013). In the current study, a greater percentage (67.6%) of Black, indigenous, people of color (BIPOC) students reported having loans compared with white students (58.9%), which is consistent with patterns in other educational disciplines and with patterns found among arts majors (Indiana University, 2013). It is possible, then, that the expected level of student loan debt may impact the future career of music therapy students, particularly for those from underserved communities.
Silverman et al. (2013) found that music therapists with a bachelor’s degree reported lower-than-average salaries compared with similar occupations with the same education level. Moreover, the high rate of underemployment in the field (Kelley, 2019) in conjunction with extensive debt may result in workload, salary, and overall career dissatisfaction. Gooding (2018, 2019) found that dissatisfaction with workload and salary can lead to negative consequences such as burnout and cause individuals to consider leaving the field of music therapy. Therefore, further research into the consequences of student loan debt on career satisfaction and longevity, especially in combination with low salaries and underemployment, is warranted to provide insight into factors that may impact individuals’ willingness to stay in music therapy.
Just over one-third of participants in this survey were Pell Grant recipients during the 2019–2020 year, like a study that compared national Pell Grant averages with Pell Grant averages at universities with music therapy undergraduate programs (Iwamasa & Thorn, 2022). Pell Grants may make college more accessible for those with the greatest financial need who want to pursue a music therapy degree, but scholars have found that students from low socioeconomic backgrounds are underrepresented in pre-collegiate music programs across the United States (Elpus & Abril, 2011). Thus, access and opportunity may be limited for students from low- and middle-income families prior to entering college. While these factors are beyond the scope of this study, understanding the impact of access and opportunity is important because financing is not the only factor that impedes higher learning (Fishman et al., 2017). More research is needed to better understand all factors that impact potential music therapy students’ ability to major in and complete a degree in music therapy.
Regarding race and ethnicity, more students from BIPOC groups responded as Pell Grant recipients than white students (52.9% vs. 29.7%). A higher proportion of Pell Grant recipients had also taken out student loans (75%) and received additional grant aid from their state (40%) compared with non-Pell Grant recipients (51.6% and 7.8%, respectively). This is consistent with previous data that have shown BIPOC students are disproportionately using student loans compared with white students (Chen & DesJardins, 2010; de Brey et al., 2019; Houle, 2014).
Employment While Degree-Seeking
The most recent NCES data indicated that in 2018, 43% of all full-time undergraduate students were employed during the academic year (NCES, 2020). However, 74% of survey respondents in the current study reported working, most of whom (71% of all employed) worked 20 hours or less. These data are consistent with the work of Moore and Wilhelm (2019), who surveyed music therapy students and found that the average hours worked per week was 18.71. An almost equal proportion of work participation and average hours worked per week was found between Pell Grant recipients and non-recipients, suggesting that regardless of socioeconomic status, most students who participated in this study work in addition to having a full-time course load. Given that working less than 20 hours per week can result in positive outcomes (Dundes & Marx, 2006; Pike et al., 2008), both Pell Grant recipients and non-recipients who major in music therapy may benefit from working.
Additional Financial Support
Higher socioeconomic status supports a student’s greater access to social and financial resources when pursuing a college degree. Nine in ten respondents indicated receiving assistance from another person (e.g., parent, caregiver), with a greater proportion of white students receiving assistance with tuition, bills, and housing or rent compared with BIPOC students. BIPOC students, on the other hand, received more assistance with food, books, and travel than white students. These findings suggest that most music therapy students have an active financial support system, but the areas supported vary with race/ethnicity. Financial stress among college students has been associated with poorer mental health, poorer academic performance, and reduced course loads or dropping out (Tran et al., 2018). Thus, support from others, both instrumental (i.e., material resources) and emotional, can act as a protective factor for students, increasing students’ chances for success in the degree program.
As stated earlier, the lack of contextual data meant that regional data should be interpreted with caution; however, we found some notable trends. The results show that the Great Lakes region led in Pell Grants, state-based grants, and employment, and the region was second in expected debt for loans. Iwamasa and Thorn (2022) also found that the Great Lakes region had the second-highest proportion of students with debt upon graduation for both public and private institutions with AMTA-approved undergraduate programs. They also reported the region as having the highest average tuition and debt amounts for public institutions and the second-highest debt amounts for private institutions. This suggests that students in the Great Lakes region are possibly the most reliant on financial assistance.
Differences in grant awards were evident geographically with the Great Lakes (49%) and Western (47%) regions having the highest proportion of Pell Grant recipients, whereas the New England (25%) and Southeastern (25%) regions had the lowest proportions. Previous data showed similar findings, particularly for the Western region. Iwamasa and Thorn (2022) found that colleges with AMTA-approved music therapy programs in the Western region had the highest proportion of Pell Grant recipients at public universities and the second highest at private universities. However, the Southern Education Foundation showed that states with the highest percentage of low-income students were in the south and west (Bidwell, 2015). The findings in this study would be partially consistent, as students in the Western region had the second-highest percentage of grant awards. Students in the south, on the other hand, did not, and students from the Great Lakes region were the highest. Again, the results should be interpreted with caution as more in-depth research is needed to have a complete picture of music therapy students who receive grant awards.
Scholars have found that music therapy students cite “financial considerations” (Clark & Kranz, 1996, p. 138) as one of the factors that influence school choice when deciding on a college to attend. This is not surprising given that music therapy degrees often require expenses that go beyond tuition. For example, internship can include additional housing, transportation, and other needs (e.g., clearance costs, liability insurance), adding financial burden for students. Likewise, the financial costs associated with board certification exam preparation have also been identified as a concern (Hsiao et al., 2020), and these costs may occur simultaneously with internship costs. Therefore, it is important that we find ways to comprehensively support students throughout their entire degree program.
The financial burden and economic diversity of music therapy interns have yet to be fully explored, though previous research in music therapy has identified internship as a source of financial stress for music therapy students (Grant & McCarty, 1990; Madsen & Kaiser, 1999; Walker, 2012). Investigating the status of interns may help define what can be done socioeconomically to improve the successful transition from student to professional. Furthermore, the effects of financial insecurity or needs on student mental health should be explored for students enrolled in all music therapy degrees, as financial resources play a key role in the overall well-being and success of students.
In addition to considering financial concerns for music therapy interns, future research should also examine music therapy student debt in relation to gender. According to the American Association of University Women (2017), women hold nearly two-thirds of all student loan debt, even though they make up roughly 56% of the undergraduate student population. Moreover, both Black and white women generally owe more than their male counterparts, though Black women have been found to have the highest average debt. Women also still face a gender pay gap, mothers face additional barriers, and students who identify outside the gender binary likely face additional financial obstacles, though data are limited (American Association of University Women, 2017; Williams, 2021). Given that the proportion of music therapists who currently and historically identify as female, transgender, genderqueer/gender non-conforming, non-binary, or different identifier constitutes an overwhelming majority of the field (AMTA, 2021), and the increased debt burden faced by individuals who do not identify as male, research is needed that explores these factors to identify needs and barriers, as well as possible financial supports.
The total number of undergraduate students meeting survey requirements in the United States and the total number of students who received the survey are unknown; therefore, it is difficult to fully explore the status of socioeconomic diversity within undergraduate music therapy students. Additionally, it is possible students more concerned with their college finances chose to participate in the study, and faculty with interest in the subject may have encouraged participation, therefore creating bias in the data. As this is the first study to inquire about financial demands, further assessment of socioeconomic trends among music therapy students within each AMTA region is recommended, including explanatory and predictive models.
Additionally, scholarships were not considered as students can receive needs-, identity-, and academic- or talent-based awards from a variety of private and public sources; therefore, it was deemed infeasible to include these data. Despite the exclusion of these data, scholarships remain a substantial factor in how students and their families decide and pay for college (Sallie Mae, 2019).
In the present study, the authors sought to understand the current financial needs and level of economic diversity of undergraduate music therapy students. Results demonstrated a large portion of students relied on loans and employment to pay for their education. Additionally, most students received some type of financial support from family or significant others beyond loans and grants. However, students who received Pell Grant were more likely to have student loans, have lower rates of family assistance, and belong to a BIPOC group. The socioeconomic status of the music therapy students affects most, if not all, aspects of their educational experience and may have an impact on long-term career longevity. Therefore, increased understanding of music therapy students’ financial needs could be an important step in developing improved access to music therapy education and practice.
Austin C. Thorn is a music therapist at Nemours Children’s Hospital Orlando and a graduate of University of Missouri–Kansas City.
Dawn A. Iwamasa is an assistant professor of Music Therapy at University of Missouri–Kansas City.
Lori F. Gooding is an associate professor of Music Therapy at Florida State University.
Conflicts of Interest: None declared.
Funding: None declared.
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